Tag Archives: society

Reconsider the Stimulus

I am fed up with the structure of the stimulus plan.  Bailing out failed banks is foolish when tax credits for mortgage payments would cut the foreclosure rate and fix the toxic debt.  Why ignore this easy and super-efficient tactic?

If I could recommend a specific plan, it would be to provide tax credits for up to $30k/year in mortgage payments for primary residences for the next 2 years. This relatively cheap solution maintains free market capitalism with all the good incentives, and would dramatically reduce the foreclosure rate — particularly for those paying less than $30k/year for their mortgages. The plan could be extended or expanded if necessary, of course.

The result would be a reduction in mortgage defaults, an increase in the value of mortgage backed securities (MBSs), and a recovery of the financial strength of the lending institutions and pensions that hold MBSs. Essentially, this would repair the cause of the credit crisis rather than throwing money away at the symptoms and rewarding failure.

As soon as it is announced, assumptions about foreclosure rates would fall, raising the value of MBSs the same day.

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Failure, Contagion, Panic, … and the Future

The original article is available in PDF format here: Failure, Contagion, Panic, … and the Future


Failure

“This is a once in a half century, probably once in a century type of event”
– Alan Greenspan, September 15, 2008

Failures of judgment appear to have been epidemic in the US economy. A brief summary of major failures includes:

  • Insufficient regulation of banking system leverage,
  • Lack of regulation in mortgage origination,
  • Low interest rates and too much borrowing
  • Indiscriminate purchase and bundling of imprudent mortgages,
  • Public mania in real estate,
  • Insufficient enforcement of existing securities regulation
  • Institutional competition toward unlimited investment leverage,
  • Accounting rules that unfairly punish illiquid securities,
  • Concentration of credit risk within AIG,
  • No prepared means to resolve a breakdown in interbank lending.

These failures revealed themselves like layers in an onion as credit became unavailable and investors sold into falling prices.


Contagion

Bad mortgages are generally blamed for causing this crisis, but they were just the trigger. Think of them as the match that lit the bomb that caused the crash. Fundamentally reasonable declines in mortgage securities were magnified many times by fundamentally unreasonable leverage in the banking system. These magnified losses drove a small number of financial institutions toward insolvency, so they were forced to unwind their investments. The contagion had begun.

Selling became a race because as selling drove down prices, overleveraged institutional investors lost their collateral to support their portfolios. So selling begat selling. Because falling prices and a lack of buyers drove companies like Bear Stearns, Merrill Lynch, and Lehman Brothers into collapse, a new kind of risk was exposed: counterparty risk.

Counterparty risk is generally ignored in securities valuation, but if the party that owes you money (or oil, or stocks) fails, then counterparty risk becomes important. People stopped trusting their counterparties so lending and trading between banks slowed way down. Some markets had “no bid” and stopped trading entirely.

When your investments have lost money and you are forced to reduce your leverage, you hope for a liquid market with ample buyers. But with counterparty risk seizing the markets, there were only vultures to be found.

Panic

Large institutional investors could not sell because trading had seized. The few transactions that occurred were at desperation prices. Meanwhile, new laws requiring institutions to quote their assets using “mark to market,” as if all similar securities should be priced like the few transactions taking place, added further chaos. The paper losses from a small number of desperate sales multiplied against the entire asset base of the banks. On paper, many banks instantly became insolvent. Counterparty risk suddenly became the priority and credit markets failed to operate. Prices plunged, fear spread to the public, and mutual fund redemptions jumped to $75 billion in September (3 times the previous record set in 2001).

All manias and all crashes are, at their core, psychological. But psychology is very real, and in crowds it drives society and the economy. Free markets are subject to free fall when everyone wants to sell and there is nobody willing to buy.

With a somewhat dispassionate perspective, it’s curious to watch the public enthusiastically follow momentum: euphorically buying high and fearfully selling low.

The Future

The Valuable US Dollar

The collapse of the credit system is (or was) highly deflationary. As the volume of credit declines, so does the money supply, and with less money each dollar is worth more. That is why commodity prices fell in half, stocks crashed, and home prices declined. On the flip side of the coin, the recovery of the credit system is (or will be) highly inflationary. In addition to recovering toward the reasonable availability of credit, the government has also pumped a lot of new money into the system. While the short-term may be deflationary, the longer-term appears to hold significant risk of a US dollar that is declining in value.

Leverage in the banking system directly reflects the debt of companies and of people. Debt is one side of the leverage ratio, with reserves on the other side. As leverage is brought down to more reasonable levels, the overall level of debt must, by definition, be reduced. That means that corporations and people must pay down debts in order to deleverage the banking system. If leverage ratios are cut from 20x to 10x, then we must all (on average) pay off half of our debts. This will have a depressive impact on consumer spending and economic growth and could lead to big problems if it is done too quickly.

Many companies finance their operations using debt, and many will fail. Profitable companies often finance their growth using debt, using their operating profits to pay bigger salaries and bonuses and if this debt is cut in half then there will be less investment to grow companies, and less money for salaries and bonuses. People who are in debt will have to consume much less because consumer credit could be cut in half. Dollars become scarce and the value of the dollar goes up. In summary: deflation and depression. The government is going to great lengths to avoid this!

“There are risks and costs to a program of action. But they are far less
than the long-range risks and costs of comfortable inaction.”
– John F. Kennedy (1917 – 1963)

1. Bailout – Government can provide banks with additional reserves.

If the Federal Reserve or the Treasury buys debt or equity in banks, it can have the proceeds used as reserves and go directly into the Federal Reserve as “high powered money”. This would reduce the leverage of the banks and allow them to continue operating as usual. Because of the reserve ratio, every dollar invested into a bank’s reserves has many times as much impact on credit and the money supply. If the reserve ratio is 9:1, for example, then, because of interbank lending, the impact on credit and the money supply can be as much as 99 times. That is why it is called high power money, and this would be a very potent way to fix the credit markets in the short term. In the long term, the banks would have lost some of their own equity, and would work to avoid such a loss in the future.

The downside of this form of bailout is that the government would own part of the banking system, spend taxpayer money to do it, increase the money supply, increase debt, and not do anything to fix the structural problems that led to so much leverage.

2. Regulatory Overhaul – Government can change the system to engineer a soft landing.

New regulation of reserve ratios, credit, and securities markets are probably required to reduce the chances of systemic failure in the future. We think there should be a target reserve ratio just as there is a target fed funds rate. Credit regulation should include minimum collateral limits for derivative securities such as mortgage backed securities, credit default swaps, and other derivatives linked to a credit spread. Securities brokers would be responsible for reporting aggregated (clients remain anonymous) positions and collateral by security type.

The dollar has been strengthening lately as an anomaly within a long downtrend. This is no coincidence: the strength of the dollar reflects big investors reducing their leverage, repatriating US cash, selling down leveraged international investments, and generally holding more cash. As banks reduce their leverage, the money supply shrinks, so each dollar is worth more. The dollar was falling in value for years as leverage increased (money supply increased) and now, very quickly, the opposite has happened.

“Decoupling”

We have heard the argument that decoupling is dead: that international trade has brought every market into shared economic cycles. We don’t see it as a question of “either/or”, but rather as a continuum. Global growth is diverse and strong. There are certainly correlations caused by shared trends (such as trade, technology, cultures, etc.) and shared sources of capital, but these have been exaggerated in the past few years by excessive leverage that has given excessive influence to global institutional investors.

As the world economies emerge from the current financial crisis, expect lower correlations. In other words, expect some countries to emerge very strong and others to remain depressed for much longer. Countries with healthy political and economic foundations, along with abundant natural resources, are in the best positions. Brazil, Canada, India, Mexico, and China may be very strong.

The Fundamentals of the World Economy are Better than you might Expect

This is true whether you are talking about the American workforce or global economic statistics: the fundamentals are generally fine. Some of the statistics are clearly not strong but the overall picture is far from a disaster.

Gross World Product (GWP) growth has slowed from a 5% rate in mid-2007 to an estimated 3.7% in 2Q 2008, with 3% growth projected for the second half of this year. International liquidity growth slowed from 12% to 1.6% and global capital investment growth slowed from 6.5% to 3% over the same period. GWP, liquidity, and capital investment are all still growing. Liquidity growth has slowed from an unsustainable pace (more than double the growth rate of GWP), but it is still growing. This is far from a global contraction, and growth is more globally diverse and inclusive than in any previous time in economic history.

World trade volume growth has also been slowing significantly, declining from 9.3% in 2006 to 7.1% in 2007. This year, world trade volume growth has slowed to zero in May/June according to the latest official data. This is not world production, but world trade. World trade puts downward pressure on prices so a slowdown in World trade is inflationary.

Global inflation (CPI) rose from 2.2% in mid-2007 to 7.8% in 2Q 2008. Headline inflation in the industrial economies has risen from 1.4% to 4.2% in the past year, and is at double-digit levels in many emerging markets, the Middle East, South Asia, and Africa.

Global industrial output growth has slowed from 4.4% in mid-2007 to 1.6% in 2Q 2008. In the OECD, which accounts for 73% of world production, output growth has slowed from 3.4% to 0.7% in this period. In non-OECD, industrial output growth has slowed from 8.4% to 4.7%. The OECD represents a shrinking proportion of a growing global demand for resources for industrial output.

In the U.S, Q2 U.S. real GDP grew at 3.3% up from the 0.3% average growth of the prior two quarters.

GDP growth came mostly from export growth. Consumer confidence is at 30-year lows. Disposable personal income in the US rose $596 billion in May from the Economic Stimulus Plan, and consumers saved 84% of that. July data on consumer spending and personal incomes showed contractions in both areas. US Consumers are building up cash and righting their financial positions.

How you Invest

First things first: pay down debts or be ready to do so. We’ve been calling for readers to lock in interest rates on mortgages since July ’06. Credit may be more expensive and more difficult to obtain in the next few years. Companies that rely on credit to finance continuing operations will suffer.

Don’t let fear control you. Buy low. The dollar is strong and securities are cheap. Hoarding cash at a time like this is folly. Invest and diversify into Assets, Commodities, and International Equities. Companies that have international demand or that earn foreign profits may be particularly undervalued. Missing even a few days or weeks of equity or commodity price recovery might mean missing 20% or more in returns. Maintaining your strategic asset allocation balance is more important now than ever, and the dramatic volatility means rebalancing often.

Divest of long term US Treasuries, fixed income securities, and companies that require debt financing to survive. Investments that pay you back as a fixed number of future US Dollars may be eroded by inflation. In the short term, credit markets are essentially seized. In the longer run, it may be decades before debt financing becomes this easy again.

We are in the midst of major global shifts toward free societies, fair markets, growing consumption, and the magnetic attraction of purchasing-price-parity. The biggest drivers of global growth are unshaken:

  1. Expanding production into international (including developing) markets,
  2. Rapid global sharing of social systems and technologies that improve production,
  3. Expanding global trade in both goods and services,
  4. Improving alignment of tax codes and central banking policy in line with global best-practices,

Global investing appears fundamentally very strong, probably more so than at any other time in human history. The current financial crisis should be seen as an opportunity to use strong dollars to buy global investments.

Good luck,

Dan Von Kohorn

The Credit Crunch and the Market

[Download the complete article in PDF format, with charts and better formatting]

The past month has been a roller-coaster in the financial markets.

At the first hints of falling prices in the mortgage backed securities markets, Bear Sterns announced the bankruptcy of two large hedge funds, and 90% losses in a third fund which had $850 million invested in highly rated mortgage-backed securities. In the following weeks, other major funds also announced losses. Goldman Sachs’ Global Alpha hedge fund fell 27% this year through Aug. 13, prompting clients to ask for $1.6 billion in redemptions, investors told Bloomberg. DE Shaw, a pioneer of quantitative investing based on complex mathematical and computer techniques, has been hit hard in August. DE Shaw’s Valence fund is down more than 20% through August 24th, according to a fund of hedge fund manager.

These high-profile losses are prompting redemptions, and as cash flows out of hedge funds, managers must sell. Around the world, leveraged funds anticipate redemptions and are deleveraging (selling).

“When you can’t sell what you want, you sell what you can.”

Because the markets for mortgage-backed securities dried up so completely and so quickly, managers began selling positions that remained liquid and well-priced. In a sense, they had to sell good investments because they couldn’t sell the bad ones. What started as a series of collapsing mortgage strategies has spread into just about every other market that hedge funds touch. Prices fell in investments ranging from emerging market bonds to the price of hogs. In all, more than $1 trillion in value has been lost in US stock markets, alone. Many foreign markets and alternative asset classes suffered worse declines.

The trigger event is a credit tightening: mortgage issuers extended too much credit, were too loose with their lending standards, and may not have adequately communicated their loan terms. In response, lending standards have been increased and credit is tighter. US consumers might slow their spending, which might trigger a broader slowdown in the US economy, which might have implications for global growth. Uncertainty and fear prevail.

We view this fear as primarily psychological, wildly overestimated, and only loosely related to market fundamentals (See Figure 1). But that may not matter.

Contagion

The pricing of risk is driven by psychology. Investors require compensation for the possibility of loss and also for the inconvenience of uncertainty. So rising risk can cause capital to become scarce, lending rates to go up, and spending to slow. In this sense, the psychology can impact the fundamentals in what is sometimes called a “contagion”.

The “Greenspan put” was like a safety net, providing the comfort that credit would be made available on those occasions when it was needed. Bernanke has reiterated this strategy, but it remains to be seen if he has the same appreciation for what Keynes called the “animal spirits” of the market. Contagion is a real phenomenon, generally starting with a crisis in one market or a large fund, then spreading to other asset classes as volatility rises and investors require higher premiums for risky investments.

In our view, the excessive lending in the mortgage industry could trigger a contagion in a variety of ways, such as:

  • Rising rates and tightening lending standards leads to a contraction in home prices, reducing consumer spending and slowing economic growth.
  • A new awareness for the risk of debt investments causes borrowing costs for corporations and governments to rise, reducing investment and slowing economic growth.

These risks can be self-reinforcing, and could change the fundamental characteristics of the economy. These are the type of events that could change our investment strategies if they appear to develop out of control.

So far, these contagions have not caused a significant slowdown in economic activity. Volatility triggered by major hedge fund failures is different; it generally causes sharp declines in recently popular asset classes followed by recovery. These declines can proceed in unexpected ways, and can continue for some time because each price shock runs the risk of triggering another failure. It is surprising how many hedge funds use leverage sufficient to make them incompatible with price shocks. As months pass, however, these shocks can be a blessing because they offer rare value opportunities.

We should all hope that a full-fledged contagion does not develop, and be thankful that the world’s central banks are standing guard.

The Federal Reserve

It is important for the government to intervene if a contagion might damage the economy in fundamental ways, but also important for the government to avoid interfering otherwise. The Federal Reserve and foreign central banks play an important role in managing the stability of economic growth by changing the availability of capital at money-center banks, but interventions can also cause distortions in currency exchange rates, changes in the money supply affect inflation expectations, and reliance upon government intervention can lead investors take excessive risks.

On the 17th, the Federal Reserve followed several foreign central banks (European Central Bank, Australia, Japan, and others) by pumping capital into their nations’ banking systems in response to the recent volatility. This intervention increases the monetary supply, but the psychology of selling is still driving down many market prices as global investors reduce their exposure to risk and shift their portfolios to hold more cash and US Treasury Bonds.

Credit tightening is a reasonable response to excessive lending, but the signal from global central banks is that they are ready to smooth the volatility, even if it means increasing the money supply. This indicates that they may intend to inflate their way out of potential economic pain. As a result, we are less concerned about a recession, but our long-term expectations for inflation have risen. This combination makes stocks and real assets more attractive because they are better hedges against inflation, and reduces the value of fixed income instruments (such as US Treasury Bonds). Meanwhile, the global investor crowd has been doing the opposite. If higher inflation will be the ultimate outcome of this recent roller coaster, then the massive global shift toward cash and fixed income may ultimately be reversed.

20th Century Sociological Trends – Political and Commercial

“The Century of the Self” is a documentary from the BBC which discusses how groups behave, and why. The psychology of individuals has implications when studying populations. Understanding the dynamics of groups has been used to engineer demand and consent for products and political views. This is a very interesting documentary, with detailed historical references.

“Consumerism was a way of giving people the illusion of control, while allowing a responsible elite to continue managing society”

  1. The Century of the Self (1 of 4)
  2. The Century of the Self (2 of 4)
  3. The Century of the Self (3 of 4)
  4. The Century of the Self (4 of 4)

Global Risks, Global Opportunities, Investment Commentary, Q3 2006

The following article is also available with charts, graphics, and additional information here.

The global population participating in world markets has risen from about 500 million to about 5 billion since the end of the cold war. This 10-fold increase in the number of workers and consumers is the dominant force in the world economy, underlying many major trends such as:

  • The boom in outsourcing and world trade
  • The falling “real” cost of low-skilled labor
  • Deflationary pressure
  • The de-industrialization of the United States
  • Overwhelming demand for natural resources

The political response from developed nations has been to embrace free trade, promote global growth, and fight deflation by increasing the money supply.

As the world adjusts to the new labor force and production capacity, we expect these trends will evolve naturally. Outsourcing will continue and broaden as technology continues to make distance and language less of an impediment. The real (inflation adjusted) wages of low-skilled labor will continue to lag. Deflationary pressure from expanding trade and improving productivity will be offset by an expanding capital base. The de-industrialization of the United States will slow as energy and commodity prices rise because U.S. industry is more energy-efficient than most competitors. The overwhelming demand for natural resources will continue to drive up prices, as demand continues to grow faster than supply.

There are still major unanswered questions that will guide global growth. For example:

  • How quickly will emerging markets raise their consumption toward levels that are common in the developed world?
  • Will the deflationary pressures of trade and productivity be offset by rising asset prices and an expanding monetary base, such that inflation can remain low and stable?
  • As limited natural resources are bid up by new global demand, will market forces be able to restrain governments from nationalizing resources?
  • Will developed nations be able to retain labor standards and a social safety net while competing freely with nations that do not?

Investors might consider the following strategies against this backdrop of trends and risks.

Overweight U.S. Stocks

We believe U.S. equities are generally cheap, with prices already anticipating a broad economic slowdown coupled with higher interest rates. While earnings have been growing very well, prices have lagged, leading to an earnings yield premium that looks more like the average of the 70s than any period in the 80s or 90s.

If the economic slowdown is less than expected, prices may rise substantially from these levels. If the slowdown is greater than expected, clearly there is risk to the downside, but the equity markets appear more attractive, on balance, than fixed income securities.

Within the U.S. equity markets, macroeconomic trends point us toward nimble multinationals and commodity producers. It might be wise to avoid owning companies that depend on the U.S. middle-class consumer. U.S. consumer spending has some structural disadvantages because of rising mortgage rates and an interruption of the rising real estate market, so is unlikely to continue growing in line with recent history. The deceleration in consumer spending may be gradual or dramatic, but it is very likely.

Underweight U.S. Bonds

The U.S. bond market may not be attractive at this time compared with equities. After a prolonged bull market in long-term bonds, the risk/reward balance, compared with stocks, appears unfavorable.

Foreign governments are buying U.S. bonds to stabilize the value of their currencies. Insurance companies and pension funds are buying bonds to offset predictable liabilities. These sources of demand are driving up bond prices independently from other investments, making bonds less attractive.

Demand from foreign governments may diminish because they may decide that holding a global portfolio of bonds is better than concentrating in U.S. bonds. Demand from insurance and pension funds may diminish because managers are migrating toward efficient asset allocation, as opposed to strictly offsetting their liabilities.

Any one of these changes could cause a drop in the price of U.S. bonds. For example, if Japan privatizes its postal saving system as planned, it would mean that more than ¥224 trillion ($2.1 trillion) in savings and ¥126 trillion ($1.2 trillion) in life insurance would no longer be invested by the Japanese government. Japanese citizens may be less eager to buy US bonds than the Japanese government has been. Indeed, they may redirect some of those assets into Japanese equities.

Investors who must hold bonds should restrict ownership to only the highest quality, short-term bonds. Even investors seeking tax-advantaged municipal bonds are cautioned that avoiding the inflation tax, which stealthily confiscates principal, is more important than avoiding taxes on mere income.

Lock in Your Mortgage

For the same reasons that long-term bonds are in a bubble, long-term mortgages are artificially cheap. The boom in adjustable rate mortgages was the result of a very accommodating Federal Reserve, and that time is past. Now that the yield curve is flat, locking in long-term financing within 1.25% of the overnight lending rate is a rare opportunity.

Diversify U.S. Dollar Exposure

Conservative investors should hold some investments that are linked to assets or are diversified among a variety of currencies.

The stability of the U.S. dollar is tenuous. The large trade deficit and large foreign ownership of U.S. debt and investments are a tribute to the strength of the US economy; however, they also represent a risk to the U.S. dollar. Interest payments to service these debts already exceed the budgets for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Department of Education, Department of Justice, Department of Transportation, the entire Legislative Branch, and NASA, combined. Then, at some point, foreign debts will have to be repaid. A more immediate risk is that foreign investors will sell their U.S. investments if they believe they can achieve better returns elsewhere.

A similar dynamic came to crisis in dozens of countries in Asia and Latin America in the last 20 years. The increased risk of U.S. dollar weakness justifies diversification. Even a gradual long-term resolution to this imbalance would richly reward asset-based and foreign currency investments.

Heavily Overweight Commodities

The risk to the value of the U.S. dollar is enough to justify an overweight position in commodities. The additional trends in global demand growth also suggest an overweight position. Also, many individual and institutional investors have long ignored this asset class, so increased interest from the investor community may provide additional upside potential.

For fundamental reasons, commodity prices may trend higher for a long time. Previously, there had been a sustained stagnation in real commodity spot prices from 1972 through the turn of the millennium. This stagnation was partly due to the collapse of the Soviet economy, and led to a slowdown in investment in new commodity production capacity. Global demand growth was widely overlooked as producers concentrated on meeting U.S. consumption patterns. This oversight was largely because emerging market commodity consumption had historically represented such a small fraction of the total market demand.

The 4.5 billion new members of the global economy are, on average, increasing consumption at a rate far exceeding that in the U.S. Per-capita demand for commodities in emerging markets is only about 10% that in the U.S., so total commodity demand could grow at an accelerated rate until they catch up. If emerging market demand rises to 20% of the per-capita consumption in the U.S., even while the U.S. does not grow at all, total commodity demand would increase by 47%. There is simply not enough production capacity to meet that demand.
How long will it take global per-capita commodity demand to rise to half that of the U.S.? If that happens, global commodity demand will have almost tripled (even assuming the U.S. does not grow at all). Commodity producers (and investors), take notice.

Overweight Select Foreign Stocks

In many cases foreign stock valuations are low, yields are high, and prospects for growth are favorable. In addition, they are less dependent on U.S. consumer spending, and can be a good way to diversify currency exposure.

Neutral Position in Foreign Bonds

Foreign bonds offer the benefit of currency diversification, and may benefit from global central banks moving away from strictly using U.S. Treasuries. Long-term bonds issued in major currencies such as the Euro, Yen, and British Pound may benefit from flattening yield curves. However with rising global interest rates and inflation, shorter maturities may be preferable for bonds in other currencies.

America’s addiction to oil

PDF VERSION WITH GRAPHICS

Every time oil prices pull back, the financial press repeats the misguided mantra that crude inventories are too high. The fact is, inventories are far from excessive. Rather, they reflect the strategic importance of oil and America’s increasing dependence on foreign sources. Indeed, we believe that investors should expect crude oil inventories to continue rising along with prices. The higher inventories shield the economy from unexpected and uncontrollable disruptions in crude oil supply.

Oil inventories are strategic

As the chart below indicates, following the 1973 oil embargo, US crude oil inventories began rising steadily. Companies and the US Government correctly understood that maintaining larger inventories would help to avoid risks from further supply disruptions caused by OPEC. The increase in inventories continued for more than 16 years before stabilizing.

The attacks on September 11, 2001, triggered a similar change in perception – this time, the widespread recognition that inventories should be maintained to protect against supply disruptions resulting from terrorism or other political volatility. It is impossible to predict whether the current increasing trend of inventories will last as long or push as high as the previous one, but the increase appears ongoing.

CHART

Crude inventories in terms of months of supply

The slow-moving trends shown above may give false confidence in US crude oil inventory management. A more important measure of inventories is how long inventories would last during a supply disruption. Inventories would provide about two months’ supply at the current pace of consumption. This two-month period is up only slightly since September 11, 2001.

CHART

The US is increasingly dependent on foreign sources of oil

US oil production peaked in 1971. Since that time, growing demand for crude oil in the US has been satisfied by rapidly increasing imports. In 1991, imports surpassed domestic production, and since that time imports have grown to two-thirds of the total US crude oil supply.

CHART

In today’s world, the disruption of imports is a distinct risk. In the event of a war, embargo, or terrorist act, imports could be interrupted while domestic production might continue. Current US crude oil inventories would replace about 100 days of imports. This 100-day period has essentially remained the same since September 11, 2001.

If inventories do not grow in pace with demand, the period of protection against import disruptions will decline. As inventories shrink relative to imports, the US becomes increasingly vulnerable to import disruptions that could adversely affect the labor and lifestyles of Americans. By this measure, inventories have rarely been lower.

CHART

It is probably no coincidence that the|1973 oil embargo was triggered by OPEC when US inventories had fallen to less than three months of imports. A period of low inventories causes prices to respond dramatically to disruption. The oil crisis of 1979 resulted in long lines for scarce gasoline. Solar panels were actually installed on the roof of the White House.

In order to provide for the equivalent of six months of imports, inventories would have to rise by 79% over their current level.

Almost every aspect of modern living is tied to consumption of crude oil, directly or indirectly. The economy relies on the oil industry for gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, heating oil, natural gas, propane, asphalt, lubricants, fertilizers, antifreeze, pesticides, synthetic rubber, pharmaceuticals, and plastics. It is hard to imagine a functioning economy without these products.

Even the most optimistic experts anticipate that world crude oil production can only grow for a few more decades. After that time, production would decline as remaining sources became more difficult to recover from depleting reserves. Most prominent experts anticipate that global production will peak sooner; some even believe it peaked in 2005.

Already, energy efficiency is on the rise. We are increasingly using crude oil for applications that are best served specifically by crude oil. Other sources of energy are being exploited whenever possible and whenever the cost can be justified. The US economy has been growing faster than its rate of consumption of oil, but it is still highly dependent on crude.

CHART

In sum, America began coping with its dangerous dependency on oil after the Arab oil embargo of 1973. But management of this dependency is ongoing. War and terrorism, increasingly scarce supplies, and changing standards in the transportation industries are likely to lead to rising energy prices as America continues to struggle with its addiction to oil.

PDF VERSION WITH GRAPHICS

Reduce Homelessness

Problem: Homelessness exists. Untrained workers might be worth too little to hire, and they cannot receive training. This is how the cycle of joblessness starts.

Solution: Break the cycle by allowing workers to take jobs even when they pay less than minimum wage; and give them a tax break until they gain financial momentum. Specifically: eliminate the minimum wage and increase the standard tax deduction to $25k.

Implications: A huge new number of low-paying jobs would open up, offering an opportunity for training and experience to young or untrained workers. And everyone earning $25k/year or less would have no tax bill at the end of the year. The large number of new workers and jobs would rapidly grow the economy. This might not completely eliminate homelessness, but it would help a great deal. Far more jobs would be created than would be filled, so those earning the minimum wage now should expect that the job market would become more attractive, and offer better income to those with some experience or training.

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